Although countries have established a historic fund for disaster relief, they failed to take action to reduce the harmful emissions that can be caused by them.
There are many questions about the hard-won compensation system, including who pays and who is eligible to receive the cash.
It was a breakthrough in that funding for “loss and damages” was provided by , which made it onto the official agenda of the Sharm el-Sheikh talks.
Campaigners welcomed the decision to help developing countries that are struggling with the devastating effects of rising temperatures. This includes extreme flooding and drought, but which did not cause it.
Molwyn Joseph of Antigua and Barbuda, who is the chair of the organization for small island states, called the agreement a “win-win” for the entire world.
Strong criticism has been levelled at the agreement, which was greeted with applause from tired delegates around 4.15am Sunday morning, but did not include tougher measures to curb emissions or threatened to reduce existing commitments.
The text contains key decisions regarding phasing off all fossil fuels as well as keeping the 1.5C temperature limit in place, which were made at last year’s climate summit.
The new loopholes in the energy section of the overall deal have created new opportunities to cut greenhouse gas emissions at vaguely-worded sectors. They also use “low-emission” and renewable energy. Many fear this allows for the production of fossil fuel gas.
The EU, UK, and small islands lobbied for a complete withdrawal from all fossil fuels. They also pledged to limit global warming to 1.5C above preindustrial levels.
They warned that the more global warming occurs, the more severe the climate damage will become and that it will require more money to pay for them.
‘Not enough to make a difference’
Alok Sharma from the UK, who was President of the last year’s Climate Talks in Glasgow, highlighted the lack of any measures to reduce emissions.
He stated that he had joined forces with several parties to suggest a variety of measures that would have contributed. As the science shows, emissions must peak before 2025. This text does not address this issue.
“Clear follow-through on the phase down coal – not in these words.
“A clear commitment by all parties to eliminate all fossil fuels-mot in the text.
“And the energy text was weaken in the final minutes.”
Frans Timmermans, European Union’s chief climate policy officer, said that the agreement was not sufficient and criticised some countries’ commitment to limiting rising temperatures.
Timmermans stated that “This is the most important decade.” However, the summit was not able to see enough progress for the planet and people.
It doesn’t provide enough additional effort for major emitters in order to increase or accelerate their emission cuts.
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He said, “I ask you to admit that when you leave this room, we all have failed to take the necessary actions to prevent and minimize loss and damage.”
“Our citizens expect us to lead, and we should have done more.
“Too many parties don’t want to make more progress in the fight against the climate crisis.”
“World needs to make a giant leap in climate ambition”
Antonio Guterres, UN Secretary-General, stated that a fund for loss or damage is vital. However, it will not be an answer if a climate crisis wipes out a small island nation off the map or makes an entire African country deserted.
“The world needs to make a huge leap in climate ambition.
Ani Dasgupta is the president of the World Resources Institute. She said that it was “mindboggling” that no country could achieve the goal.
Courage to demand that fossil fuels be phased out, as they are the largest driver of climate change.
Delegates wondered if a deal would be made towards the end of the second weeks. Egypt, the host nation, gave them until Friday to create the first draft just hours before the summit was scheduled to close.
As countries tried to shift the balance of the text in their favor, a series of frenetic negotiations ensued.
Consensus is key to the COP process. Therefore, all 200 countries must agree to the deal in order for it to be successful.
Egypt was criticised for its restrictions on protests, poor organization, and the ongoing imprisonment of Alaa Abd El Faattah, a British-Egyptian activist, among other government enemies.
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