Targeting civilians in warzones is banned under international law.
And although Russian officials and state media have repeatedly claimed they are only attacking military sites, Ukrainians are being shot at by soldiers as they flee their homes and killed when their communities are bombed.
President Volodymyr Zelenskyy’s office claims 1,500 residential buildings, 202 schools and 34 hospitals have been shelled across the country since the invasion began.
And in an open letter, his wife Olena described the tactics used by Russian forces as the “mass murder of Ukrainian civilians”.
Although the real figure is thought to be much higher, the United Nations estimates at least 516 Ukrainian civilians have died during the conflict and 908 others have been injured.
Here Sky News takes a closer look at the civilian targets destroyed during the war so far and the human stories behind them.
Horlivka, Donetsk, 25 February
Among the first human tragedies of the invasion to be reported were the deaths of two teachers killed in the shelling of a secondary school in the separatist-held region of Donetsk in eastern Ukraine.
In the early hours of Friday 25 February, artillery fire hit Secondary School No 50 in the city of Horlivka.
Deputy headteacher Yelena Ivanova and geography teacher Yelena Kudrin were both killed in the attack.
The school’s director Sergey Boott described them as “our best teachers”.
He said: “They struck a direct blow to our school, killing our school’s best teachers. This is a crime which must be punished.”
A funeral was held for them at a local cemetery three days later.
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The invasion began in the eastern Donbas region on 24 February after Russian forces crossed the so-called line of control into non-occupied parts of the Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts.
Okhtyrka, Sumy, 25 February
On the same day in the small city of Okhtyrka, 70 miles from Kharkiv in northeastern Ukraine, six people were killed at the Sonechko Nursery and Kindergarten.
Among the victims were seven-year-old Alisa Hlans and her grandfather.
Alisa’s grandfather is said to have died in front of her as he tried to save her, before she was hit and rushed to hospital. She died the following day.
Ms Zelenska, the president’s wife, condemned Vladimir Putin‘s forces for “consciously and cynically” killing children during the conflict.
“Alice from Okhtyrka. She could have turned eight years old. However, she died in the shelling with her grandfather, who was protecting her,” she wrote in an Instagram post.
Amnesty International claims the attack was the result of cluster bombs, which release mini “bomblets” that can destroy multiple targets at once.
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It says Russian forces used a 220mm Uragan rocket to trigger at least seven cluster explosions – four on the roof and three on the pavement outside the school.
A local man told the charity at the scene: “While I was walking down [with] my wife, there were immediate explosions.
“You see, everyone is covered with blood, everything. Look at it… it kills me the fact it’s a kindergarten.”
Stoyanka, Kyiv, 26 February
Russian forces blew up a motorway bridge near the village of Stoyanka, 20 miles from Kyiv, on the third day of the invasion.
Strategically the move blocked the main road that heads west out of the capital, but at the cost of a young boy’s life.
Rescuers struggled to pull people out of cars that had fallen as the bridge collapsed.
According to the Russian State Service of Extraordinary Situations, two men and two women were pulled alive from the wreckage.
But a third victim, a boy of around eight, was found dead inside one of the cars.
The injured were sent by ambulance to the Borodyanka Central District Hospital in Makariv.
Ivankiv, Kyiv, 28 February
The Ivankiv Museum of Local History was burnt down by Russian forces on the fourth day of the invasion, the Ukrainian Ministry of Foreign Affairs confirmed.
No one was inside at the time, but all 25 artworks by the late Ukrainian folk artist Maria Prymachenko were destroyed.
The museum had been there since 1981 and was home to Prymachenko’s work as she lived in a nearby village.
Her artwork had appeared on Ukrainian postage stamps and in 1966 she was awarded the country’s highest cultural honour, the Shevchenko National Prize.
After her death in 1987, UNESCO dedicated the year 2009 to her cultural legacy.
A larger collection of her work – made up of around 650 pieces – is housed at the National Museum of Applied Folk Art in Kyiv.
Vlada Liovchenko, director of the nearby Vyshhorod History and Culture Reserve, described the loss of the museum as “irreparable”, while local art collector and researcher Ustyna Stefanchuk accused Russia of “destroying Ukraine’s cultural heritage”.
Ivankiv, located between Chernobyl and Kyiv, was a key strategic point for Russia in the earlier days of the invasion.
Transport equipment factory
Kharkiv, 1 March
The heavy shelling of Kharkiv’s Freedom Square – the second biggest in Europe – was widely reported.
Government buildings, an opera house and a concert hall were destroyed.
Part of the city’s National University was also damaged.
According to the local authorities, at least 10 people died and 35 were injured during the heavy bombing of central Kharkiv.
Shells also hit a nearby factory where workers were producing equipment for transport.
Although the numbers were not confirmed, women and children are believed to have been among the victims in and around the factory.
Those who survived were taken to underground shelters at nearby schools and kindergartens.
Kyiv, 1 March
Five people were killed and five others injured in the bombing of Kyiv’s 1,200ft TV tower.
It damaged broadcasting equipment and forced eight TV channels temporarily off air.
Mr Zelenskyy’s office accused Russian forces of trying to cause panic with a media blackout, and several civilian landmarks were hit in shelling of the surrounding area.
These included a sports centre, shops, residential buildings and, according to Ukrainian officials, the Babyn Yar holocaust memorial, a burial site for 30,000 Jewish people killed by the Nazis during the Second World War.
Andriy Yermak, head of the president’s office, said on Facebook: “At this moment a powerful rocket attack is being executed on the territory where the Babyn Yar memorial complex is located.
“These monsters are killing the Holocaust victims all over again.”
Mr Zelenskyy, who is Jewish, later added in an address: “To the world – what is the point of saying ‘never again’ for 80 years, if the world stays silent when a bomb drops on the same site of Babyn Yar?”
Russia denied it deliberately targeted the memorial site.
Lisichansk, Luhansk, 2 March
Video footage from the eastern Luhansk region shows the Lisichansk beer factory being hit by a rocket during the second week of the invasion.
Sergei Gaidai, head of the Luhansk regional military administration, confirmed Russian forces had shelled the brewery on 2 March and one person had died.
Describing it as a “very strategic facility”, he said: “They are indiscriminate; wherever they hit, civilians suffer.”
Intensive care hospital
Zaporizhia, 2 March
There have been widespread reports of hospitals attacked across Ukraine.
Attacks on hospitals are war crimes under international law and the Russians previously used the strategy in Syria to create terror and panic.
The Vasilevsky Multidisciplinary Intensive Care Hospital was hit by enemy fire, according to the Zaporizhia Regional Military Administration.
Three people died and operating theatres, the resuscitation ward and reception were destroyed, it said. One other person was seriously injured.
Local officials claimed that despite a lack of hot water, electricity and heating, staff continued to provide care to patients in the aftermath of the attack.
Kharkiv, 2 March
At around 9am on Thursday 2 March, the congregation at the Cathedral of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary in Kharkiv narrowly escaped a bomb attack.
Had they not held mass in the basement, it is likely all of them would have been killed.
Father Wojciech Stasiewicz said: “Mass had just ended. We miraculously survived. Thanks be to God, no one was injured because we were in the basement.”
The roof of the cathedral’s offices and an attic room were destroyed by a missile, the Kharkiv Eparchy of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church said.
Although most Ukrainians identify as Orthodox, around a tenth are Catholic.
Havryshivka, Vinnytsia, 6 March
At around 1.30pm on Sunday 6 March a missile hit a warehouse at Vinnytsia Airport in central Ukraine.
A fire broke out after a rocket hit a fuel container inside the warehouse, according to the State Emergency Service of Ukraine.
Mr Zelenskyy said it had been struck by eight Russian missiles and the airport was “completely destroyed”.
Rescuers pulled nine bodies from the rubble, five of which were civilians and four soldiers.
A further six people were rescued from the wreckage alive, officials said.
Makariv, Kyiv, 7 March
On Monday 7 March a bread factory in the town of Makariv near Kyiv was hit by a Russian airstrike, the State Emergency Service of Ukraine said.
Although the factory was not in operation at the time, around 30 people are believed to have been inside.
Rescuers said it recovered 13 bodies from the wreckage, with five more people found alive.
Mariupol, Donetsk, 9 March
At around 4.30pm on Wednesday 9 March planes dropped bombs on a maternity hospital in Mariupol.
The ground shook more than a mile away as the front of the building was blasted off, windows were blown out and a crater two storeys deep formed in the courtyard.
Three people, including a “young girl”, were killed in the attack, and 17 others, including “children, women and doctors”, were injured, Mariupol city council said.
Pictures from the scene showed soldiers carrying a bleeding pregnant woman on a stretcher past burnt-out cars and emergency vehicles.
Another was photographed sobbing as she clutched her child.
Sharing a video of a brightly painted children’s ward corridor strewn with twisted metal, Mr Zelenskyy said in an address in Russian: “What kind of country is this, the Russian Federation, which is afraid of hospitals, afraid of maternity hospitals, and destroys them?”
While he described it as a genocide, Russian officials claimed it was fake news and “information terrorism”.